Density in a data center refers to how much IT equipment can be placed in a given amount of space and how much power and cooling is required to keep the equipment operational.
High density means that there is more power-demanding server equipment per square meter of space in the data center, which can result in higher energy consumption and the need for more advanced cooling systems. For example, a data center with a density of 10 kW per rack will require much more power and cooling than a data center with a density of 5 kW per rack. In return, a smaller data center with high density can be utilized more efficiently than a larger one with lower density.
High-density data centers can produce higher temperatures in their waste heat, making it more attractive to heat consumers. Additionally, it is more environmentally friendly to build smaller data centers than large ones to accomplish the same task.
How to calculate density in a data center?
The formula to calculate the density of a data center is:
Density = power consumption (kW) / space (square meters)
This provides the power consumption per square meter and gives an indication of how much power is required for each square meter of data room space.
Density can also be measured per rack, and in that case, the formula would be:
Density = power consumption (kW) per rack / rack space (square meters)